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10 Điều IFP ALumni cần biết khi trở về cộng đồng

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10 điều cần thiết lưu ý với những anh/chị mới trở về nước
Lần cập nhật cuối lúc Chủ nhật, 21 Tháng 6 2009 12:05 Đọc thêm...
 

Dự án đào tạo kỹ năng giải quyết mâu thuẩn cho tập huấn viên CTXH, 2011

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Thông báo về dự án đào tạo kỹ năng giải quyết mâu thuẫn do IFP Vietnam Alumni triển khai.

Lần cập nhật cuối lúc Thứ ba, 16 Tháng 11 2010 17:31 Đọc thêm...
 

Chia buồn cùng Trà Mi (Cohort 2005)

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Sáng ngày 05/4/2011, IFP Alumni nhận được tin do anh Đàng Năng Hoà thông báo về việc mẹ của bạn Trà Mi (Cohort 2005) vừa qua đời tại Ninh Thuận.

Mẹ của Trà Mi là nghệ nhân về nghề dệt Thổ cẩm Chăm đã từng được quỹ Ford tài trợ trong một dự án truyền dạy nghề có nguy cơ mai một tại Ninh Thuận. Bác là người đã có công phục hồi một số hoạ tiết tinh xảo đã bị thất truyền trên sản phẩm dệt của người Chăm. Loại hoạ tiết này chỉ chuyên dùng cho cung đình từ hình ảnh bản mẫu hiện còn lưu giữ tại một bảo tàng nghệ thuật ở Pháp.

Những người tham gia đoàn công tác tuyển sinh cho năm 2009 còn nhớ như in hình ảnh một người phụ nữ nhân hậu niềm nở tiếp đón chúng tôi tại nhà và hướng dẫn rất kỹ cho chúng tôi những tinh hoa của dân tộc Chăm.

Chúc hương hồn bác được bình yên nơi vĩnh hằng.

 

SINH VIÊN ĐÁNH GIÁ GIẢNG VIÊN:Thêm một kênh thông tin cần thiết

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Việc sinh viên (SV) đánh giá giảng viên (GV) không có gì lạ tại các trường ĐH, CĐ ở các nước có nền giáo dục tiên tiến, song lại khá mới mẻ ở nước ta. Tại Khoa Ngoại ngữ, Trường Cao đẳng Bình Định, việc lấy ý kiến phản hồi của SV về hoạt động giảng dạy của GV đã được thực hiện từ 4 năm nay…

Lần cập nhật cuối lúc Thứ bảy, 04 Tháng 12 2010 20:44 Đọc thêm...
 

AN OVERVIEW ON DISABILITY IN VIETNAM

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AN OVERVIEW ON DISABILITY IN VIETNAM - By Nguyen Huyen Linh (ULSA)

Vietnam is located in South East Asia, bordering China in the north, Laos and Cambodia in the west, and the Pacific Ocean in the east. The country has the shape of an “S” with a distance of 1,650 kilometres from north to south and is about 50 kilometres wide at the narrowest point (total land area = 330,000 square kilometres). The topography consists of hills and densely forested mountains, which occupy 80% of Viet Nam’s total land surface. Two delta regions, the Red River Delta in the north and the Mekong Delta in the south, are the primary food sources of the country. The country is divided into 64 provinces and cities, sub-divided into districts and communes. The majority (70%) of the population lives in rural areas. Males and females are not evenly divided among the population (49.5% versus 50.5%). The population of Vietnam is disproportionately young; over two-thirds of the population is below the age of forty. Life expectancy at birth is 73 years. Vietnam is an ethnically diverse country with 54 ethnic groups. The “Kinh” or “Viet” ethnic group is the largest (86%) of the population.

 

2.1. Vietnam - Social economical situation

 

Vietnam is a densely populated (88.773 million) developing country that has been transitioning from the rigidities of a centrally planned economy since 1986. Vietnamese authorities have reaffirmed their commitment to economic modernization in recent years. Vietnam joined the World Trade Organization in January 2007, which has promoted more competitive, export-driven industries.

 

Poverty has declined significantly, and Vietnam is working to create jobs to meet the challenge of a labor force that is growing by more than one million people every year. The global recession hurts Vietnam's export-oriented economy, with GDP in 2012 growing at 5%, the slowest rate of growth since 1999. In 2012, however, exports increased by more than 18%, year-on-year; several administrative actions brought the trade deficit back into balance. Between 2008 and 2011, Vietnam's government managed currency, the dong, was devalued in excess of 20%, but its value remained stable in 2012. IDA credit have originally pledged US$15.752 billion for 2013 and disbursed US$10.547 billion as at March 2014[1]. Vietnam's economy continues to face challenges from an undercapitalized banking sector. Non-performing loans weigh heavily on banks and businesses.

 

Country statistics[2] (World Bank 2012)

Indicator

Result

Note

GDP

 

155.8 billion USD

 

2012

Annual GDP Growth

 

5.3%

 

2013

GNI per capita

 

1,550 USD

 

2012

Population below poverty line

 

17.2%

 

2012

Life expectancy at birth

 

76

 

2012

 

Like other countries, Vietnam has regional differences in poverty. The poor in Vietnam are not a homogeneous group, however some main characteristics can be defined:

  • The head of the household is most likely to be a farmer: in 1998 almost 80 per cent of the poor worked in agriculture.
  • Most live in rural, isolated or disaster prone areas, where physical and social infrastructure is relatively undeveloped.
  • Most typically have small landholdings or are landless.
  • They have limited access to credit.
  • Households are more than likely to have many children or relatively few laborers.
  • The poor are disproportionately likely to be from an ethnic minority.
  • The poor are disproportionately likely to be families with a large number of children.
  • The poor have limited education: people who have not completed primary education make up the highest incidence of poverty.

 

The poorest regions are Northern Mountains, North Central and the Central Highlands. The persistence of poverty in the Northern Mountains and the Central Highland regions reflects the constraints these regions face in participating in the growth process. The major constraints are a difficult physical environment, which limits agricultural development and restricts access to infrastructure and markets. According to a survey in 2010 (62/63 provinces), total poor households were 3.3 million (15.25%). Most of the poor are living in rural area (90%). All 3 poorest provinces with over 50% of households living under the poverty line belong to the Northern Mountains region, namely Dien Bien (50.8%), Lai Chau (50.1%) and Ha Giang (50%)[3].

2.2. Vietnam – disability

 

The Ordinance on Disabled Persons (1998), Socialist Republic of Viet Nam, defines a person with disability (PWD) as follows:

Irrespective of the cause of disability, as a persons who is defective in one or many parts of body or functions which are shown in different forms of disability, and which reduce the capability of activity and causes many difficulties in work, life and studies.

 

However, like the definition contained in the Convention on the Rights of People with Disabilities, the origin of disability is restricted to physical impairment. In this connection, the Vietnamese government adopts the World Health Organisation (1997) seven-impairment domains classification

 

2.2.1. Disability statistics[4]

  • Persons with disability: 7.8% - 6,700,000
    • Male: 6.6% - 2,814,000
    • Female: 8.9% - 3,886,000
  • Age-specific prevalence of disability (%)
    • 0–15: 7.7
    • 16–59: 4.1
  • Distribution by type of disability (%)
    • Mobility: 29.4%
    • Hearing: 9.4%
    • Mental: 16.8%
    • Seeing: 13.8%
    • Intellectual: 13.6%
    • Multiple: 17%

 

2.2.2. Disability and poverty

 

Little attention has been given to the relationship between disability and poverty in Vietnam. According to a government survey in 2005, about 40% of PWDs were illiterate; and 25-35% were working to support themselves with the remainder dependent upon their family and social protection (MOLISA, 2006). The majority of employed PWDs are working in agriculture which is associated with low-income earning.

 

 

2.3. Vietnam - basic service delivery

2.3.1. Health care

 

The health system is a mixed public-private provider system, in which the public system plays a key role in health care, especially in policy, prevention, research and training. The private sector has grown steadily since the ‘reform’ of the health sector in 1989, but is mainly active in outpatient care. Inpatient care is provided essentially through the public sector. The health care network is organized under state administrative units: central, provincial, district, commune and village levels, with the Ministry of Health at the central level. In the public sector, there are 783 general hospitals, 144 specialized hospitals and 11,636 primary health centers. The establishment of the grassroots health care network (including commune and district levels) as the foundation for health care has yielded many achievements, especially that of contributing towards attainment of national health care goals for the entire population. The health stations in communes provide primary health care services, including consultation, outbreak prevention and surveillance, treatment of common diseases, maternal and child health care, family planning, and hygiene and health promotion. The total number of private facilities rose from 56,000 facilities in 2001 to 65,000 in 2004[5]. In 2009, there were 102 private hospitals, accounting for 8.9 % of the total number of hospitals nationwide, with 5,822 beds, accounting for 3.2% of the total number of hospital beds.

 

The National Strategy recognizes the important role of health and the need to invest in health for accelerated socioeconomic development and to improve the quality of life of each individual. The strategy was based on four principles:

 

•  equity and efficiency of the health sector;

•  the fight against the broad social determinants of bad health;

•  the integration of traditional and modern medicines; and

•  an appropriate public-private mix, with the Government in a position to protect the public interest.

 

The National Strategy provides a broad basis for further planning and can be seen as an orientation document for the development of the health sector. However, it does not provide specific solutions on how to: (1) ensure equal access to health care; (2) improve the performance of the health system and the quality of care; (3) rationalize the prescription and use of drugs and expenditure on medicines; and  (4) respond to new public health problems, including non-communicable diseases.

 

2.3.1.1. CBR

In 1987 community-based rehabilitation (CBR) approach based on World Health Organization’s Model was introduced in Vietnam. CBR consists of 5 components: health care, education, livelihood, social participation and empowerment to disabled persons. Currently, there is a Rehabilitation department in all provincial hospitals and several provincial rehabilitation hospitals, which provide technical training to health workers at lower levels. These workers facilitate the community and families to provide appropriate forms of rehabilitation to persons with disability.

 

In addition to this system in the health care network, there are also the Social protection centers belonging to the Ministry of Labor, Invalid and Social Affairs to provide support to disadvantaged persons including disabled persons. These centers also provide rehabilitation services to persons with disability.

 

2.3.1.2. Health insurance

Universal health insurance is one of the most important policies of the Vietnamese Government to ensure financial sustainability for the health care system. Currently, 68% of population is covered by health insurance. The Vietnamese Government provides free health insurance to all children under 6 years old, all members of families living in remote areas, all members of poor families and the severely disabled persons. The Vietnamese Government provides support of 50% of fee for near-poor families, 30% of fee for students. The Ministry of Health is responsible to update the list of the diseases, procedures and drugs to be covered by the health insurance. Implementation of the health insurance policies might differ from province to province.

 

2.3.2. Education

 

Education is divided into five levels: preschool, primary school, secondary school, high school and higher education. Formal education consists of twelve years of basic education. Basic education consists of five years of primary education, four years of intermediate education, and three years of secondary education. The majority of basic education students are enrolled on a half-school-day basis.

 

Regarding ownership, as prescribed in Article 44 of Vietnam’s Education Law, there are four types of educational facilities:

  • Public education facilities: established and monitored by the State. The State also appoints their administrators and decides staff quota. The State invests in infrastructure and allocates funding for their regular spending tasks.
  • Semi-public educational facilities: set up by the State on the basis of mobilizing organizations and individuals in the society to jointly invest in infrastructure.
  • People-founded educational facilities: Social or economic organizations apply for permission from the State to set up an institution with non-State budget capital.
  • Private educational facilities: Individuals or groups of individuals apply for permission from the State to set up and invest in the institution by themselves.

 

Children normally start primary education at the age of six. Education at this level lasts for 5 years and is compulsory for all children. The country's literacy rate is over 90%. According to the 2006 Multiple Indicators Cluster Survey of Vietnam’s General Statistics Office, 96% of 6-11 years old children were attending primary school. However, there was still a significant disparity in the primary education completion rate among different ethnicity. While primary completion rate for ethnic Kinh (majority group) students was 86%, the rate for ethnic minority children was only 61%. In school year 2009-2010, Vietnam had 15,172 primary schools and 611 combined primary and lower secondary schools. The total enrollment was 7.02 million pupils, of whom 46% were girls.

 

2.3.2.1. Law on Education and Disabled Persons

Under the implementation of the Education Law and the Law on Disabled Persons, the Government, ministries and localities are now more concerned with creating conditions for persons with disability to access educational services. The training resources for disability education is increasing. In university and college, there is special education for PWDs. The Ministry of Education and Training in collaboration with other related ministries issued a code regarding the training for children with disability and special education. There are 264 educational managers of 63 provinces, cities and faculties of universities and colleges in the country. Teachers are being trained in education for children with disability. Nearly 700 high school teachers have been trained in inclusive education of children with disability at 07 colleges. More than 10,000 preschool teachers and schools have received basic instructions in teaching children with disability. A network of district trainers is being formed to meet the needs of nearly 230,000 children with disability in school going age.

 

But still the majority of children with disability does not have access to educational services, especially in rural areas. According to the National Assembly Committee on Social issues assessment of the social issues at the National level, only 36.8% of persons with disability has attended elementary or secondary school. The main reasons are the difficult economic conditions, perceptions of family and community and inaccessibility of educational facilities .

 

The Vietnamese Government provides free primary education to all children, free school fee for children living in remote areas, orphaned children and disabled children living in poor families. The above policy is applied for public education facilities only. For the other 3 kinds of education facilities, the fee will be different and according to each school’s policy and is usually beyond what the family economy permits.

 

2.3.2.2. Inclusive education

Formal education in Vietnam consists of twelve years of basic education.  Basic education consists of five years of primary education, four years of intermediate education, and three years of secondary education. To meet the demands of its ever-changing and rapidly growing economic landscape, Vietnam has made efforts to overhaul its education system.  In the summer of 2005, the National Assembly of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, Legislature XI approved the country’s new education law stating that learning is the right and obligation of every citizen and that every citizen has equal rights of access to learning opportunities.  Further, compulsory education will include primary and lower secondary levels and that priority in resource allocation (i.e. teachers, infrastructure, equipment and budget) is given to schools and classes that support the learning of students with disability. Despite tremendous growth in the business of education in recent years and having an impressive 94% literacy rate[6]. Vietnam, like many countries worldwide, continues to face educational challenges such as inequity, teacher recruitment, quality instruction, and small budgets.   Consequently, inclusive education is often viewed as an additional burden. One aspect of concern for national development was how the communities could be fully involved to take responsibility for their total population as part of community development. Thus the major characteristic of the last 5 years development of inclusive education has been that the whole community is involved. Implementation starts through so-called community support teams that involve parents, health personnel, retired individuals and different local mass organizations as well as getting adults with disability to take part in developing a caring community approach. Families that have children with disability receive support and training by these teams that have had training in disability issues, community building, teamwork etc. The approach continues through enrollment of all children into pre-schools followed by primary education. The strategy has empowered responsibility and community building in the communes where inclusive strategies have been built.

 

2.3.2.3. Non-registered schools

As above described, community responsibility in inclusive education has been widely developed in Vietnam in some recent years. There are many special schools set up by individuals, groups of persons or organizations, in particular Roman Catholic congregations, for disabled children in their localities. Most of these schools are registered as social support units but they provide primary education to these children. This fact will create difficulty for the children if they want to join the normal schools later as these schools cannot provide a formal educational certificate or diploma.

 

2.3.2.4. Access to services

In general, persons with disability encounter difficulties accessing health and educational services, especially people with disability living in remote areas. Due to many local difficult conditions, community health care is often not well provided to persons with disabilities.

 

2.3.3. Livelihood

2.3.3.1. Vocational training of persons with disability

Vietnam has a large number of vocational schools. Several of those also enroll PWDs. However most of these schools are located in the urban centers and the Committee of social issues of the National Assembly reported that the proportion of persons with disability that receives vocational training is small (12.1%).

 

2.3.3.2. Employment of People with Disability

Following labor law regulations, all enterprises in Vietnam should employ 2-3% persons with disability in their workforce. However depending on the type of business, most companies do not meet this disability labor rate. There are several reasons for this, like most businesses do not consider this their own rule, often persons with disability do not meet the minimum recruitment requirements; many businesses are not wheelchair or blind accessible, and many industrial businesses are considered unhealthy or unsafe for persons with disability, like those operating in specific industries such as metallurgy, chemicals, geology and cartography, oil and gas, mining, mining, construction, transport.

 

Over 50% of disabled people of working age have employment, most of them in the agricultural sector (70%). Implementation of policy measures to create jobs for people with disabilities, there are more than 400 manufacturing facilities for wounded and disabled persons which create stable jobs for 15,000 workers with disabilities.   65 % of households with persons with disabilities are entitled to the policies to support production, such as tax exemptions, preferential credit support, land support... However, most people with disabilities do not have stable jobs, mostly is self-employed, working in humane charity based organizations.

 

2.3.4. Social protection

 

The Government and community as well as the disabled persons have made several efforts to provide social protection to persons with disability. Authorities have issued several laws and sub-law documents to protect persons with disability. The overall policy of the State is to encourage and create favourable conditions for persons with disability to exercise, on equal basis with others, their political, economic, cultural and social rights and to promote their ability to stabilize their own life, integrate into the community, and participate in social activities. Persons with disability are supported by the State and society in healthcare, rehabilitation, appropriate job creation and enjoy specific rights in accordance with the law. Discrimination against persons with disability has decreased dramatically in recent years and many talented persons with disability have become role models in society not only for disabled persons but also for non-disabled persons via attention in the mass media.

 

There are many meetings and workshops on reproductive health for disabled persons in which they have been learning their rights regarding marriage, sexual activities and reproductive health. In fact, there are many disabled persons who have an active, healthy and happy family life.

 

Vietnamese disabled persons actively participate in Para-games locally and internationally in the Asian region and the world, including the Paralympics, where they have been successful medal contenders.

 

Disabled persons from Vietnam actively participate in several local social organizations such as the Women Union, Youth Union, professional associations and international disability movements. Many Self-Help groups of disabled persons have been established in almost every province in Vietnam. In many provinces, and even districts and communes, disabled people organizations (DPOs) have been established. Several are officially recognized organizations that can formally participate in social and political activities.

 

2.4. Vietnam – Legislation on disability

 

Vietnam already signed the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disability in 2008 and is expected to complete its ratification procedures in 2014, as well as trying to develop and improve the law and policies in order to promote the rights of persons with disability. According to the roadmap to ratify the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disability, Viet Nam enforced the Law on Persons with Disability in 2010 and developed the necessary documents for implementation. From 2010 to 2013, a total of 13 by-laws related to persons with disability have been enforced in the fields of communication, sports, tourism, access to social security and the implementation the Millennium Goals.

 

The Prime Minister has approved the Project on supporting Persons with Disability from 2012 to 2020 to promote the implementation of policies to support persons with disabilities in accordance to the regulations of the Law on Persons with Disability and implement the commitment of the Vietnamese government in the 7 priority fields in the second decade of the Biwako Millennium on persons with disability in Asia - Pacific region. The Project is divided into 2 phases with specific criteria in order to promote integration of persons with disability in the field of healthcare, education, labour, construction, traffic, information technology, culture, sport, legislation… Besides, the government also deploys a series of policies to support persons with disabilities such as the Project on supporting the rehabilitation for people with mental illness; participate and implement international and regional initiatives; increase the participation of persons with disabilities and protect their rights; support establishing self-reliant organizations of persons with disabilities; support vocational training and create jobs; improve the ability to approach and use cultural and public works and other basic social services for persons with disabilities[7].

 

Despite the Law being very clear, the implementation of the law much depends on the commitment and budget availability of each province/district and commune. The obsolete way of thinking has prevented vulnerable groups such as women, children, people with disability and ethnic minorities from fully understanding and taking a proactive approach towards their rights. The tradiitional mentality to favour men over women has been an obstacle for gender equality; social prejudice creates discrimination against people of ethnic minorities and those with disability. Constraints of resources lower the effectiveness of programs and policies, especially in the increase of support and access to social services by children, persons with disability and the elderly. There is concern about the scarcity of resources allocated for children, particularly affecting children living in remote areas, children with disability and children from ethnic minorities and indigenous groups. The Child Right Committee concerned about the stigmatization of children with disability and urged Viet Nam to eliminate discrimination, particularly in the education and health system, and to explicitly prohibit discrimination against children on the grounds of disability. There is concern about the alarmingly disadvantaged position of children with disability regarding their right to education. It recommended that Viet Nam apply a rights-based approach in relation to children with disability and implement inclusive education policies, with a particular focus on children with disability living in rural areas. It is noted that members of disadvantaged and vulnerable groups – such as young workers, women, ethnic minorities, disabled workers, people living with HIV/AIDS and unskilled migrant workers – nevertheless continued to encounter special difficulties in accessing the labour market and in finding decent work.

 

2.5. Vietnam – Disability stakeholder mapping

2.5.1. Government organizations:

  • Ministry of Labor, Invalids and Social Affairs: in charge of coordination of care for persons with disability.
  • Ministry of health: in charge of health care for persons with disability.
  • Ministry of Education and Training: in charge of education for persons with disability.

 

2.5.2. Semi-Government organizations:

  • Federation of VN Disabled Persons (at national level): established in 14 October 2010. The national affiliate association consists of Blind Association, Union of enterprises of DPs, Sport Union of DPs, Association for the support of Vietnamese handicapped children and orphans, Association of orange/dioxin victims, Association of Rehabilitation. The main responsibilities of these unions are policy support, coordination with other organizations and associations to support disabled persons. Their staff always belongs to ministries.
  • Association for the support of Vietnamese handicapped children and orphans (ASVHO): this was established in 25 April 1992. The ASVHO is an organization with branches in 42 cities and provinces, 142 districts and 514 neighboring groups, 655 collective affiliates and 327,099 individual members.
  • The Disabled Persons Organization (DPO): this association is established by the Disabled Persons themselves in some provinces only (Hanoi, Ha Giang, Da Nang, An Giang, Can Tho...). This Organization is also established in some districts and communes in many other provinces. Currently, there is no official list of this association in whole country. These are established and managed by the active DPs. These have the same activities as the above associations but more friendly and mentally supported than the others.
  • Women Union: this is a State-led social organization with a very good network from central to village level. The government pays the women union staff.  They are very familiar with the social work, especially for women and children.
  • Veteran Association: this is a State-led social organization with a very good network from central to village level. The government pays its staff. They are very familiar with the social work, especially for political, economic and solidarity work.

 

2.5.3. Non-Government organizations:

  • The “Will to Live” center. The Will to Live Center, a Social Enterprise, operates in the field of supporting and assisting the handicap’s integration completely through training, orienting and consulting in order to help disabled people find suitable jobs and sources to consume their products. By doing this, the handicapped will build up their confidence, find it easy to integrate into community and lessen social and familial burdens. This center raises funds from different donors and provides vocational training, jobs (within the center enterprises) and social event for PWDs.
  • ACDC (Action to the Community Development Center). The center has legal status under the Southeast Asia Scientific Research Association in Vietnam. This center raise funds from different donors and implement several projects such as education for children of single mothers with disability, empowering the youth with disability, legal advice for persons with disability, sexual and reproduction health education for persons with disability.
  • Blue dreams: this is an organization of the volunteers with and without disability. This group manages an active website “PWD Vietnam” to share the activities for PWD and of PWD.
  • IDEA (Inclusive Development Action): the registered implementer of the Disability Forum Vietnam, is a local NGO working in the field of disability with the overall goal of promoting inclusive and barrier-free national development by providing information, advice and training to people with disabilities, NGOs and international agencies.
  • Independent Living Center: this center helps mainly physically disabled to live an independent life with the help of a personal assistant and adaptations at home.
  • Vietnam Work Camp: this is a group of local and international volunteers who organize several visits to the many leprosaria in Vietnam to help the persons disabled by leprosy with the construction of houses, latrines, water containers, cultural events, etc.
  • DRD (Disability Resource and Development) in HCMC: this organization raises funds from different donors and implements several projects such as capacity building for persons with disability, independent life, DP network, job opportunity and DP club.
  • FGCDC (Fund for Genetic Consultation and Disabled Children) in Hue city: this organization raises funds from different donors and implement several projects such as provide consultation to parents of disabled children on health care and rehabilitation, special education to them and recently early intervention.

 


[1] http://data.worldbank.org/country/vietnam#cp_fin

[2] http://data.worldbank.org/country/vietnam

[3] For a Total overview please see Annex 1

[4]ESCAP. ESCAP Disability at a Glance 2012

[5] WHO: Vietnam health profile. 2011.

[6] http://en.moet.gov.vn

[7] UPR18 Disability analysis and recommendations Vietnam  - http://www.internationaldisabilityalliance.org/en/18th-session-january-%E2%80%93-february-2014

Lần cập nhật cuối lúc Thứ ba, 01 Tháng 3 2016 16:09
 


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